Definition of Batteries

A battery is a device containing an electric cell or a series of electric cells storing energy that can be converted into electrical power. The electrical power that is converted is usually concerted through a direct current. Common household batteries, like the ones we use in flashlights, are usually made of dry cells. The chemicals in the battery that produce the current are made into a paste. The chemicals in other batteries such as car batteries, are in a liquid form
A battery stores chemical energy, which is then converted into electrical energy. A car battery, which is a typical kind of battery, is made up of an arrangement of galvanic cells
. Each cell contains two metal electrodes, separate from each other, embedded in an electrolyte containing both positive and negative ions. A chemical reaction between the electrodes and the electrolyte, takes place, and the metals dissolve in the electrolyte, leaving electrons behind on the electrodes. But the metals dissolve at different rates, more electrons gather at one electrode (creating the negative electrode) than at the other electrode (which becomes the positive electrode). This builds up electric potential between the electrodes, which are typically linked together in series and parallel to one another to provide the desired voltage at the battery terminals. The buildup of charge on the electrodes keeps the metals from dissolving too much, but if the battery is hooked up to an electric circuit through which current may flow, electrons are drawn out of the negative electrodes and into the positive ones, reducing their charge and allowing further chemical reactions.

There are many different types of batteries. There are both non rechargeable and rechargeable batteries. Besides the two main classifications of batteries, there are many different types of specific batteries such as Alkaline batteries , Aluminum batteries , and Atomic batteries . We use different types of batteries everyday. Batteries help make our cars run, they give us light, they help us to communicate, and they help run many other electric appliance we use each day.
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Rechargeable batteries are batteries that can be re-energized by using an electrical application through an electrical cell. As a result the battery is then restored to its full extent making then recharged. The rechargeable battery, more commonly known as the storage battery, is the only type of battery that can be recharged. In other words, they are typically more expensive than the non rechargeable batteries. Rechargeable batteries usually come in many different sizes depending on how bulky or petite they are. Along with different sizes of the batteries, different types of designs require different chemical uses. Most commonly used in rechargeable batteries are the components of nickel, cadmium, nickel metal hydride, lithium ion, and lithium ion polymer. As a result of using rechargeable batteries, they can offer an immense economic benefit unlike one-time use batteries. The most familiar rechargeable batteries to consumers are the mediocre.
Most rechargeable battery technology has been adapted into the standard “AA,” “AAA,” “C,” “sub-C,” “D,” and “9-volt” arrangements that consumers are familiar with. While the rechargeable versions of these types of batteries are far more expensive than the one time use non rechargeable batteries Rechargeable batteries can be charged many times. Some manufactures make products that can claim a lifespan up to 3000 charge cycles for their batteries.

A re-chargeable battery is also known as a storage battery. These batteries have a process that uses the electricity Rechargeable batteries can offer economic and environmental benefits compared to disposable batteries. These batteries normally have a higher price but in the long they will save you have much more use of these batteries if you use them wisely. These batteries are used for automobile starters, portable consumer devices, light vehicles tools and power supplies. There are some of these batteries that can be charged up to 500 times before not being able to be used again.


A non-rechargeable battery is also known as a primary cell. The formal definition of a primary cell is more technical and hard to understand. A primary cell is any kind of electrochemical cell in which the electrochemical reaction is not reversible. A common example of a primary cell is the disposable battery. Unlike a secondary cell, the reaction cannot be reversed by running a current into the cell; the chemical reactants cannot be restored to
their initial position and capacity. Primary batteries use up the materials in one or both of their electrodes. Batteries are classified as either dry cell or wet cell. In a dry cell the electrolyte is absorbed in a porous medium, or is otherwise restrained from flowing. In a wet cell the electrolyte is in liquid form and free to flow and move. Batteries also can be generally divided into two main types-rechargeable and no rechargeable, or disposable. Disposable batteries, also called primary cells, can be used until the chemical changes that induce the electrical current supply are complete, at which point the battery is discarded. Disposable batteries are most commonly used in smaller, portable devices that are only used intermittently or at a large distance from an alternative power source or have a low current drain. Rechargeable batteries, also called secondary cells, can be reused after being drained. This is done by applying an external electrical current, which causes the chemical changes that occur in use to be reversed. The external devices that supply the appropriate current are called chargers or rechargers.
Primary batteries can produce current immediately on assembly. Disposable batteries are intended to be used once and discarded. These are most commonly used in portable devices that have low current drain, are only used intermittently, or are used well away from an alternative power source, such as in alarm and communication circuits where other electric power is only intermittently available. Disposable primary cells cannot be reliably recharged, since the chemical reactions are not easily reversible and active materials may not return to their original forms. Battery manufacturers recommend against attempting recharging primary cells.
Common types of disposable batteries include zinc-carbon batteries and alkaline batteries. Generally, these have higher energy densities than rechargeable batteries.

History of Batteries

There is a lot of history behind the battery and how it works. Ben Franklin first coined the term battery to describe charged glass plates. Luigi Galvani was the first person to really research the electric bases of nerve impulses and paved way for inventors like Alessandro Volta. The history of the battery dates back long ago. Most historians believe the battery was first used in the eighteenth century, although archeological finds prove otherwise. Around 1936, archaeologists uncovered a village near Baghdad; in the village was a set of jars which contained a rolled-up sheet of copper which housed an iron rod. Some scientists think these are ancient galvanic cells about 2,000 years old, about the year 200 B.C. Common food served as an electrolyte. Modern replicas have successfully produced currents, making scientists think that if it was a battery it could have been used to produce an electric shock as a source of religious experience, or used to store scrolls.
Historians believe the first battery was created in 1798 by Alessandro Volta built the first “voltaic pile.” This battery was made of paired copper zinc disks separated by cardboard dampened with a salt solution. The metallic arc was used to carry electricity over long distance. It was later found out that you can cause a chemical reaction by running an electrical current through a circuit by using one voltaic cell. Also Vasili Petrovused the Voltaic Pile to create arc effects. It was the first “wet battery cell” and was a reliable source of energy. The next battery, made by John Daniell, was designed to prevent corrosion from Volta’s batteries, although not as effective as Volta’s battery. Thirty-two years later, Georges Leclanche used the first “wet cell” battery to power telegraph equipment. The first battery to use the negative electrode and porous pot, patented by J.A. Thiebaut, was quickly followed that same year by the first “dry cell.”
Voltaic Pile

William Robert Grove invented the fuel cell that produced an electrical current by combining oxygen and hydrogen in 1844. It was made of a zinc anode dipped in sulfuric acid and a platinum cathode dipped in nitric acid, separated by porous earthenware. The Grove cell provided a high current and nearly twice the voltage of the Daniell cell, which made it the best cell of the American telegraph networks for a time. However it gave off a poisonous nitric oxide fumes when used. The voltage also dropped sharply as the charge diminished, which became a liability as telegraph networks grew. Platinum was also very expensive, and the battery was soon replaced by the cheaper and safer gravity cell. The first rechargeable battery: the lead-acid cell was made in 1859 by Gaston Plante. It recharged by having a reverse current run through it. Plante’s first model consisted of two lead sheets separated by a spiral. This battery could produce large currents in surges and had a very low internal resistance meaning it could power multiple things.
In 1896, Columbia, today known as Energizer, became the first available battery in the United States. The founder of Energizer, later invented the electric hand torch/ flashlight which ran on a dry cell battery, the D-size battery, with a light bulb, and a rough brass reflector enclosed by a paper tube.


Types of Batteries

Types of non-rechargeable batteries

Type of Battery
1.9 volts
Extract metals from their salts using “electrolysis”
Chromic Acid
2 volts
Uses chloric acid as a depolarizer
1.4328 volts
Produces a highly stable voltage usable as a laboratory standard
1.1 volts
Used in the early stages of battery development
1.688 volts
Generally used for electric bells
1.5-3.7 volts
Used in portable electronic devices
0.9 volts
Can be used in hearing aids, electronic watches, and calculators
Molten Salt
2.58 volts
Used in places where power density and high energy density are needed
1.7 volts
High-drain battery power devices (e.g. cameras)
1.86 volts
Used in many small electronic devices
No Voltage
Most environmentally friendly and used in place of heavy metals
Zinc-Air Battery
1.65 volts
Used in hearing aids and older cameras
Zinc Chloride
1.5 volts
Uses purer chemicals and has a longer battery life compared to other zinc batteries

Aluminun Battery
Alkaline battery- A very widely used battery that was developed by Lewis Urry. This battery is made of multiple cells and, although inexpensive, have less energy-density than some other batteries. This replaced the zinc-carbon battery in the 1950’s.
Daniell Cell- John Frederick Daniell made this battery which used pottery to block corrosion of the zinc.
Dry cell- Revolutionized batteries. Carl Gassner made the first one. It could supply current facing any direction and was cheaper and more reliable than some wet-cell batteries.
Galvanic cell- An early battery named for Luigi Galvani who discovered that 2 different metals connected by a salt bridge would make an electrical current.
Lithium battery- G.N. Lewis oversaw the first testing of the lithium-based battery.
Mercury battery- This battery is made of mercuric-oxide and manganese dioxide. Due to mercury content, it is banned in many countries.
Oxyride battery- It is an improved version of an alkaline battery. It is made of graphite and manganese dioxide.
Paper battery- This battery was developed by Albert Mihranyan. He coated paper in a special polymer called polypyrrole. This turns the paper into an effective battery. It is still being perfected.
Silver-oxide battery- Made of silver oxide and zinc, this battery has a long life.
Voltaic pile- Made by Allesandro Voolta. It is made of a series of copper, electrode-soaked cloth, and zinc sets stacked on top of each other in that order. It short-circuited because the big metal discs squeezed the electrolyte out of the cloth and the zinc corroded over time.
Trough battery- The trough battery was a variation of the Voltaic Pile. It was simply laid on its side to prevent the electrolyte from leaking.
Water-activated battery- A very reliable battery activated by submerging in water. It must be replaced soon after activation because it does not store well
Weston cell- A very reliable cell made of mercury, cadium, and some other materials such as platinum wires. It is very reliable in its output
Zinc-air battery- When a sealing tab is removed, oxygen from the air goes into the battery and activates it. It is cheap and has a long shelf life, but quickly loses power once activated.

Types of Rechargeable Batteries

Type of battery
7.2 volts
Laptop battery
1 kWh to 1MWh
Electric Vehicles, and large stationary applications
Lead Acid Battery
2.105 volts
Backup power supply for power failure
Lithium Ion Battery
3.6/3.7 volts
Usually in portable consumer electronics
Lithium Iron phosphate
3.3 volts
Used in a hexapod vehicle
3 volts
Once used in Solar powered airplane flight
Molten salt
2.58 volts
Power Electric vehicles
1.24 volts
Portable Electronics, toys, model toys, and tools and camera flash
1.2 volts
Has long battery life
Nickel metal hydride
1.2 volts
All electric plug in vehicles,
1.6 volts
Replacement batteries for things that use alkaline primary batteries
Rechargeable alkaline
Anywhere from 1.5 to 9 volts
Common usage, forms, AA, AAA, C, and D
2 volts
Wind energy storage, has long battery life

The DR30 Battery- a laptop computer batteries used in the 1990s. These batteries can still be purchased today from Fedco Electronics, Inc.
The Flow Battery- converts chemical energy into electricity
Fuel Cell Battery- produces electricity from a fuel tank
Lead-acid Battery- electrolyte containing one or more dissolved electro-active species flows through an electrochemical cell that converts chemical energy directly to electricity.
Lithium-ion Battery- common in portable electronics energy-to-weight ratios, lack of memory affect, and slow self-discharge when not in use. They can explode easily.
Lithium Sulfur Battery- This battery was used on the longest and highest altitude airplane flight back in August of 2008.
Lithium Titanate Battery- can be charged faster than Lithium-ion batteries
Molten Salt Batteries- have a higher energy density through the proper selection of reactant pairs
Nickel-iron Battery- has a long battery life, even when it is overheated and overcharged
Rechargeable Alkaline Battery- a common form of battery. Its shapes include AAA, AA, C, and D. It can hold its charge for years.
Sodium Sulfur Battery- has a high energy density, high efficiency of charge and discharge, and a long battery life, but it is highly corrosive.
Super-ion Battery- a new type of rechargeable electric battery.
Super Charge Ion Battery- charges within 10 minutes. It is made by Toshiba



Duracell is a worldwide battery company that is a part of The Proctor & Gamble Company. They are the world’s leading manufacturer in alkaline batteries and also markets lithium and zinc batteries as well.
The history of Duracell started with ingenious scientists named Samuel Ruben and a manufacturer named Philip Rogers Mallory. Their partnership sparked Duracell International. During WWII Ruben invented a mercury cell battery that helped withstand harsh climates in North Africa and the South Pacific. Ruben’s associate soon started making and distributing these Mercury Cell batteries, and short following the Mallory Battery Company was created. During the 1950’s Ruben started to make a battery that was an improvement of the alkaline manganese battery. He tried to make it more durable, compact, and longer lasting. Eastman Kodak made a camera that required AAA alkaline manganese battery. Ruben’s partner, P.J. Mallory, soon started making the new battery that put Duracell on the map.
Corporate Citizenship at Duracell is very important to the employees at Duracell because it gives them a chance to give back to the community. Duracell employees give back to the community in little ways and in big ways. Some of the small ways they help are: helping kids in school, blood drives walk-a-thons, etc. They also help the community in very big ways also like: care units in hospitals, urban/house development, educational programs, and rehabilitation programs.
Duracell supplies batteries for all types of products including:
Common Use Batteries
Batteries used for common used items
Photo and Imaging Batteries
Photo and Imaging batteries are used for Cameras and other imaging devices
Hearing Aid Batteries
Hearing Aid batteries are used for hearing aids
Rechargeable Batteries
Rechargeable batteries are used for common used items but are rechargeable for longer use of them
Special Application Batteries
Duracell made these batteries for any type of special made devices, for example- watches and medical home equipment and devices
Duracell produces flashlights and flash light batteries for any type of needs


History Of Energizer
The Start of Energizer in 1800’s
Energizer was not always called Energizer as we know it today. In 1886 the original name of the company before it became Energizer was the National Carbon Company which was the first company to sell commercially available batteries sold in the U.S. It was then later called the Eveready Battery Company we know it today as Energizer. In 1898 Conrad Hubert was the founder of the Eveready Battery Company. He is also credited with the invention of the electric hand torch AKA flashlight. During 1898 Eveready also created the D sized battery for the first flashlight. This led to the beginning of one of the biggest and well known battery companies of the world today Energizer.

The 1900’s Major Advancements for Energizer
During the time span of 1955-1997 Energizer invented many different kinds of battery that would revolutionize portable battery power for the 1900’s

The first miniature batteries for hearing aids were produced
The first nine-volt battery were introduced they are commonly used in smoke detectors today
The first commercial watch battery was made
The Eveready Nickel Cadmium Rechargeable Battery System was produced
The first Alkaline Cylindrical batteries were produced which was the major revolutionary point for the battery

The first silver oxide system miniature batteries used for hearing aids and watches
Energizer led the battery industry around the world in taking out added mercury in batteries, also they invented the AAAA alkaline battery which the first produced commercially
Energizer made the first AA Lithium Battery which is the world’s longest lasting battery
The first on-battery tester was produced
They produced the NiMH rechargeable battery

Twenty First Century for Energizer
At the start of the twenty first century there was technological advancements in every day technology around us. With these technological advancements required new types of batteries, flashlights, chargers, and portable power sources for things like the iPod.

Energizer introduced Titanium Technology batteries which gave more power and dependability
Energizer made the first Lithium AAA battery
The Quick Switch flashlight was made allowing anyone use any size of battery they had
The instant cell phone charger was launched and also many new and improved lighting products.
New lithium lighting products were made along with portable power for iPod, and packs for hearing aids.
Energizer partnered with Philips and Techtium to make the first hybrid cell phone which could run off a single AAA battery

The things that Energizer has done have greatly improved battery and other technologies for the modern age. That is why Energizer is one of the biggest and well known brand names today and remain there for a long time to come. That why there motto is “ Energizer, keep going”.

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The History of Spectrum

Spectrum was founded in 1906 as the French Battery Co. in Madison, Wisconsin. In 1930, the company name was changed to Ray-O-Vac, and shortly thereafter, the company released their first invention: the first wearable vacuum tube hearing aid in 1933. In 1939, it introduced the first leak-proof “sealed in steel” dry cell battery. In 1960, it introduced the first cordless shaver, the Lektronic. It used rechargeable nickel cadmium cells. In 1970, it was awarded the patent for silver oxide button cells. In 1972, Rayovac introduced the first heavy-duty all zinc chloride battery with double the life of general purpose batteries. In 1984, it released the Workhorse premium flashlight with a lifetime warranty. In 1993, it introduced Renewal, a reusable, long-life alkaline battery. That same year, it acquired Clairol Inc.’s worldwide personal care appliance business. In 1995, Michael Jordan become the spokesperson for Renewal rechargeable batteries and Power Station chargers. In 1996, Thomas H. Lee acquired Rayovac and announced plans to go public. In 1997, Rayovac went public on the New York Stock Exchange.
In 2001, Rayovac announced its breakthrough 1-hour recharging technology. The very next year, it released its revolutionary 15-minute recharging technology. That same year, it acquired VARTA, a European consumer battery marketer. In 2003, it acquired Remington Products Co., a manufacturer and marketer of electric razors and personal grooming products. In 2004, Rayovac acquired 85 percent stake in Chinese battery manufacturer, Ningbo Baowang. That same year, it also acquired the Brazilian battery maker Microlite S.A. in 2005, it acquired United Industries as a result of acquiring Microlite. That same year, it acquired Tetra Holdings and Jungle Labs, and after that, Rayovac changed its name to Spectrum Brands Inc.
Today, Spectrum Brands’ products are sold by the world's top 25 retailers and are available in more than one million stores in 120 countries around the world. It is headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia. It makes about $2.6 billion a year, and has about 10,000 employees worldwide.

Present Uses

Basic uses

Batteries in hand-held objects

Batteries in handheld objects:
IPod and iphones like most modern devices, need to be charged so that they can be up and running as long as possible. Without a battery, the devices could not be used multiple times. It is useful to have a good battery that recharges your device quickly. The HHI iphone and iPod external 1000mah backup battery makes charging an iPod and iphone much easier. The HHI iPhone and iPod External 1000mah Backup Battery with LED extends your iphone and iPod battery life to 12 hours or more. This backup battery is small and lightweight, so it is easy to fit in youBatteriesr pocket. These are lithium-ion powered batteries that recharge your handheld devices quickly. It takes two hours for this battery to charge your iPod or iphone completely.

Batteries in large machines

A car battery is a type of rechargeable battery that provides electric energy to a car. This refers to an SLI battery (starting, lighting, and ignition) to power the starter motor, the lights, and the ignition system of a car engine. This also may describe a traction battery as the main power source for an electric car.
One type of battery, lead-acid batteries, is made up of plates of lead and separate plates of lead dioxide. This causes a chemical reaction that releases electrons, allowing them to flow through conductors to produce electricity. As the battery discharges, the acid of the electrolyte reacts with the materials of the plates, changing their surface to lead sulfate. When the battery is recharged, the chemical reaction changes: the lead sulfate changes into lead oxide and lead.
Every automobile needs a car battery to start its engine. Car batteries help stabilize, filter, and give the needed power for ignition, electrical lighting, and other car accessories. The car battery provides the power whenever the charging system cannot carry the excess loads. Car batteries also maintain the electrical flow of the charging system when it is not operating.

The car battery is an important part of the car, that is why, battery check up is necessary. You may encounter car problems and engine stoppage when the battery is in bad shape. Well-maintained batteries can last for approximately two years, sometimes longer.
The model of the battery is usually important to many buyers. This is the reason why you may buy a battery that can be larger and has a higher reserved capacity rating than the old one that you are replacing. Group numbers of the battery may vary, but prices may stay the same.
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Future Uses of Batteries

Nuclear Batteries

Scientists are currently working on a nuclear battery to use in the future. These batteries would be used in MEMS (micro-electromechanical systems) and NEMS (nano-electromechanical systems). A sample of a nuclear battery has been made and is being tested. The sample is slightly larger than a penny, but the University of Missouri is trying to make it even smaller. This sample’s battery life is million times more than the standard battery. Scientists claim that nuclear batteries will be safer than the chemical batteries we use today. Nuclear batteries have already been used in several things such as space satellites, underwater systems, the military, and pacemakers. Nuclear batteries use the isotopes of its radioactive element to create its power. The scientists at the University of Missouri are working on making a smaller one. The only disadvantage is that in order to not damage the isotopes the semiconductor had to be made very large. A professor at the University of Missouri is working on a liquid solution that will allow small devices to charge the battery with out damaging the isotopes. In the future scientist believe that nuclear batteries will be used in portable electronics such as cell phones.
the sample of the nuclear battery compared to a dime
the sample of the nuclear battery compared to a dime

Future Car Batteries

Batteries have impacted us for many years. Some ways in which we don’t even realize it. Batteries will continue to affect us in the years to come. Right now, car batteries don’t hold enough energy to get us as far as we want. Scientists are working on discovering new ways to create high power batteries. The researches at the Maryland NanoCenter at the University of Maryland have developed new systems for storing electrical energy that comes from another source. These other sources are sometimes 10 times more efficient than what we have. The goal of these researches is to simultaneously achieve high power and high energy density to enable the devices to store large amounts of energy, to deliver the energy at a high power, and to be able to recharge rapidly. The researchers are developing the technology for mass production of not only new efficient car batteries, but also for devices that look like thin panels, similar to solar panels. They will be at a lower cost as well. These new devices exploit unique combinations of materials, processes, and structures to optimize density and power. These two combinations together have a really bright future for building a viable new generation and all the technology that comes with it. Researchers call all these advancements the new sector of the tech economy.

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Fuel-cell batteries

The Batteries of tomorrow promise to be much more powerful and also much smaller. This will allow us to operate super computers in the palm of our hand.

Types of to come are the fuel cell. This battery relies on an electrochemical reaction to produce energy, and converts hydrogen and oxygen into water to produce electricity. This battery is constantly being recharged due to the flow of chemicals, unlike our current batteries. Even though these batteries might take 5-10 years to crop up on a wide scale, they have very little to no effect. The first applications of this battery will be for home and small businesses, which will provide backup and supplemental power. Eventually cars will incorporate this technology to help the environment. Once this technology has be proven reliable in these categories, the fuel call will be taken to a larger scale in power source.
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Companies are also developing solar and energy storage batteries, based on nanotechnology using carbon nanotubes. Some believe that this will be the ultimate replacement for fossil fuels. Nanotechnology will also increase the available power from a battery and decreasing the time required to recharge a battery. It will also increase the shelf life of a battery, and reduce the possibility of batteries catching fire be providing less flammable electrode material.

Batteries Powered By Water
Japanese company’s invention of water-powered batteries are as powerful as everyday batteries currently in use and will offer a cheaper alternative. They also have ultimate shelf life.

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