L.E.D


What is LED?
LED Stands for light emitting diode. LEDs are semiconductor devices that convert electricity into light. Each diode is about a quarter of an inch in diameter and uses about ten milliamps to operate at about a tenth of a watt. LEDs are very small in size, but can be grouped together for higher intensity applications. Led fixtures require a driver which is analogous to the ballast in fluorescent fixtures. The efficacy of a typical residential application LED is approximately 20 lumens per watt, though 100 LPW have been created in laboratory settings.
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Term
Definition
Units
How to interpret
Color Temperature
Color of light
Kelvin (K)
Sunlight at sunrise is 1800K
100W Incandescent light bulb is 2850K
Overcast Sky is 6500K
Color Rendering Index (CRI)
Light’s effect on color
Scale of 0 to 100 with sunlight at 100
The higher the number, the more “true” the color will look in that light
Brightness
The intensity of light
Lumens
The higher the lumens, the brighter the light
Power
Amount of electrical energy consumed
Watts
Lower the watts, the lower the energy consumed
Efficacy
The efficiency of the bulb to convert electricity into light
Lumens per Watt
More efficient bulbs provide more light using less energy
LEDs have been used widely for decades in other applications. They have been lighting up watches and cell phones, forming the numbers on digital clocks and, when used in clusters, forming the images on large outdoor television screens, and illuminating traffic lights. Until recently, LED lighting has been impractical for most other everyday applications because it is built around costly semiconductor technology. But the price of semiconductor materials has gone done, opening the door for some great changes in energy-efficient, green-friendly lighting options.

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The Use of Electroluminescent:
The LED was discovered by accident on the year of 1907. LEDs are able to work by the effect of electroluminescent. Electroluminescence is a phenomenon of optical and electrical materials where a material is passed through an electric current which creates light. It is copper wire that is coated with a phosphor, an exhibitioner of phosphorescence. When the phosphor is applied with an AC Current, it will glow. The electroluminescent wire is used in rope light and Christmas lights.
LED components have a circuit board, a light direction changing unit and a chip is installed for emitting light. An LED component can be applied to every side-viewing electronic device.


History

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Time Line of LEDs
  • The first crude incandescent bulb was created in 1809 by Humphrey Davy, an English chemist.
  • The first true incandescent bulb was created by Warren De la Rue in 1820.
  • Thomas Edison created an incandescent bulb utilizing a carbonized filament within a vacuum in 1879.
  • The initial concept for LEDs first arose in 1907 by Henry Joseph Round.
  • Gudden and Robert Wichard Pohl used “phosphor materials made from Zinc Sulphide, this was done in Germany 1920s.
  • In the 1950s that used Gallium Arsenide as a substitute for Zinc Sulfide and the creation of an LED that produced invisible, infrared light at room temperature.
  • The first “visible spectrum” LED, producing “red” light was created in 1962 by Nick Holonyak, Jr.
  • In the 1970s, Gallium Phoshide with dual Gallium Phosphide substrates was being used to produce red, green, and yellow light.
  • Rapid growth in the LED industry did not begin until the 1980s when Gallium Aluminium Arsenides were developed.
  • Emerging laser diode technology, (which focused on maximizing light output) was the first “ultrabright.” LEDs were created in the early 1990s through the use of Indium Gallium Aluminium Phosphide (InGaAIP) led in part by Toshiba’s creation of an LED that “reflected 90% or more of the generated light.
  • Shuji Nakamura of Nichia Corporation developed the world’s first blue LED in 1993.
  • A critical milestone was reached in 1997 when it became cost effective to produce “high brightness” LEDs in which the intensity (benefits) exceeded the associated costs to produce it.

First LED

The first report of a LED was made in 1907 by the British experimenter H. J. Round. There was an important use when made the discovery for several decades. The first LED was made by in 1962 while he was at General Electric Company. It became the first LED’s commercial available in late 1960’sand and were red. They were most used as replacements for incandescent indicators, and in seven-segment displays, first in expensive equipment and as laboratory and electronics test equipment, then later in such appliances as TVs, radios, telephones, calculators, and watches.

There are two types of LED panel and they are conventional, using discrete LEDs, and surface mounted device panels. All of outdoor screens and a bit of indoor screens are built around discrete LEDs, also known as individually mounted LEDs. A mixture of red, green, and blue diodes are put together to make a full-color pixel. They are mixed evenly and are apart. They are measured from center to center for absolute pixel resolution. The largest LED display in the Universe is over 1,500 feet long and is located in Las Vegas, Nevada and it covers the Fremont Street Experience.

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Commercial history

L.E.D. is an acronym for Light Emmiting Diode. The history of the LED goes back to 1907 with a form of electroluminescent material. The first commercially usable LEDs were developed in the 1960's. Texas Instruments, General Electric, & RCA Labortories were researching and developing the technology. They were developed by combining three elements: gallium, arsenic, and phosphorus. They discovered that the miniature crystals (gallium arsenide) gave off infrared radiation when electric current was applied. That was and became the first (infrared) Light Emmitting Diode. Then came the first visible spectrum (colored-Red) Light Emmitting Diode. Light Emmitting material had been around since the early 1900's but not properly researched. Different forms of Gallium as well as other crystals determine the color of the LED They were used to obtain a 655nm red light source. Blue LEDs were invented in 1971. White, Green, Blue, UV, Yellow, Amber, and Yellow LEDs went into commercial production in the early 90's. Red LEDs have been used in scientific and indicator devices since the early 70's. Although the luminous intensity was very low with brightness levels, scientists still found use in a variety of applications. Following GaAsP, GaP, or gallium phosphide, red LEDs were developed. These devices were found to be very high in quantum efficiencies; however, this was only a small part in the growth of applications for LEDs. This was due to two reasons: the 700nm wavelength emission has a very low sensitivity level of the human eye and so it does not "appear" to be very bright. Even though the efficiency is high the human eye is most responsive to yellow-green light. Second, this high efficiency is only achieved at low currents. As the current increases, the efficiency decreases. This proves to be a disadvantage to users. As a result, GaP red LEDs are currently used in only a limited number of applications.

The first commercial LED lights were usually used as replacements for incandescent indicators. Red LED lights were bright enough only for use as indicators, as the light output and they were not enough to light up an area. Also, other colors became broadly accessible and also appeared in applications and equipment. As the LED technology became more advanced, the light output was increased. While maintaining the efficiency and the reliability to an acceptable level, the output was increased. The invention and development of the high power white light LED led us to use for illumination. Most LEDs were made in the very common packages. With increasing power output, it has become necessary to discard usless heat in order to maintain reliability. More complex packages have been adapted for efficient heat dissipation. More up-to-date packages have little resemblance to early LEDs.

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LED Lighting History Timeline

1907 - Light Emmiting Solid
1955 - Infrared LED
1962 - Red LED
1971 - Blue LED / 1993 production
1972 - Yellow LED / 90's production
1972 - Amber LED / 90's production
1995 - White LED / late 90's production
late 90's - UV LED / late 90's production


Electronic component are used for displaying symbols in electronic instruments and devices. An LED is a diode made of semiconductor material that glows when electricity is passed through it. The first digital watches and calculators had LED displays, but many later models use liquid-crystal displays.
In 1993 chemists at the University of Cambridge, England, developed LEDs from the polymer that emit as much light as conventional LEDs and in a variety of colors.
New generations of LEDs that can produce light in the mid-infrared range safely and cheaply were developed by British researchers in 1995, using thin alternating layers of indium arsenide and indium arsenide antimonite.

The History of LED’s used for Scoreboards

Led technology powers many of our TV’s, computer screens, bill boards, electronic scoreboards, cell phones and even the light in our vehicles. In the 1970’s more colors of LED’s were introduced. This led to the making of LED’s in scoreboards. Then in the 1980’s the development of a new compound of gallium aluminum arsenide. LED’s are the largest growth and development. With the brightness of the lights the LED scoreboard became reality, this gives it the ability to pulse of multiplex. Now LED’s last longer and shines brighter. They use less energy than virtually all other light sources except for the sun. Now scoreboards can be displayed on high definition over a very broad and wide look.

LED, or light-emitting diode, was first known report of a light-emitting solid-state diode was made in 1907 by the British experimenter H.J. Round. Up to 1968, visible and infrared LEDs were extremely costly, on the order of US $200 per unit, and so had little practical application.

The Monsanto Corporationwas the first organization to mass-produce visible LEDs, using gallium arsenide phosphide in 1968 to produce red LEDs suitable for indicators. Hewlett Packard (HP) introduced LEDs in 1968, initially using GaAsP supplied by Monsanto. The technology proved to have major applications for alphanumeric displays and was integrated into HP's early handheld calculators.


The LEDs have been great in use because they are easy to install, easy to maintain, brighter than neon, energy efficient, safe to touch, and last up to 100k.

The first LEDs were produced in the 1960’s and they had a red light source. The problem was the red light was not bright enough for humans to really be able to see it in normal day light. Therefor, the first LED production was used for mainly indicator lights for military use. New colors later became available and therefore the the new lights were in demand and the LED was used for calculators, digital watched, test devices, and more.

Present Uses

Some important everyday uses include:
LED TV
LED Lights
Radios
Telephones
Watches

L.E.D. TV's

LED televisions are nothing more than a LCD (liquid crystal display) television with a new way to light it. The first LCD light was done with Cold CathodeFluorescent Lamp to light it, but now some Televisions are using LED's to light it. The fact is it's not really a new kind of television it's just a different back light. Although it's kind of senseless, Samsung's idea of renaming the slightly modified TV has been a success for the company. Why did they need to change the lighting in the LCD TV? It's because the fluorescent lighting tubes had trouble making deep black colors and fluorescent colors. The LED lighting eliminates this problem.
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Are LED TVs more expensive than LCD televisions? The answer is yes, right now they are a lot more expensive, but that should change as more companies manufacture LED TVs. It is not very surprising that Vizio has recently come out with a cheaper version of the LED TV.



LED lights

LEDs are used form many kinds of electronics and lighting. Today LEDs are used mainly in light bulbs. The reason for this popularity is that LED lights consume almost no power at all, making the use of this type of light much more practical. These lights can last more than 20 years while still using less electricity than compact fluorescent lamps. Everyday uses of LEDs include overhead lighting for desk lamps and even the New Year’s Eve ball in Times Square. Although LEDs are more expensive than traditional compact fluorescent lights, they are rising in popularity due to these lights being brighter and longer-lasting. Today a 60-watt LED light bulb costs from $75-$100 but consumers are willing to pay that amount for the great quality LED lights provide.

Some common LED lights include:

Book lights
A book light is an LED that is very portable and ideal for trips and such. These are meant to be used while read a book, hence the name. They are fairly cheap and the bulb is not as expensive and of the same quality as other LEDs.

Desk lamps
Common and well known types of LEDs are reading lights and desk lamps. LEDs have a directed beam, so they do not annoy others when used as reading lights. LEDs also do not get hot to the touch, so there’s no risk of burns. Because LED light is so focused, even a 100 lumen LED desk lamp will seem quite bright when it’s used as a desk lamp.


Traffic Signals
LED traffic signals are more efficient than regular traffic signals due to the fact that they use 80%-90% less energy and still produce a brighter and incandescent light. Another big advantage of having LED traffic signals is the how long these bulbs last. They can last 10 years (as said earlier) rather than the short two years regular traffic signals last. Lastly, LEDs, due to their long lasting durability, have lower maintenance costs.


Night Vision Goggles
LEDs are used in night vision goggles to brighten up what is seen. Night vision goggles themselves are extremely useful especially in planes and in military nightvision-gadget-goggles.jpgoperations.

LED flashlights
LEDs in flashlights are extremely important as they last longer and are flashlight_28LED.jpg
much brighter. This is the perfect advantage for a flashlight.

Recently, flashlights which use LEDs instead of conventional light bulbs have become much more popular

LEDs can be significantly more efficient than incandescent lamps at lower power levels and so use less battery energy than ordinary lightbulbs. Such flashlights have longer battery lifetimes, in some cases hundreds of hours, although the LED efficiency advantage diminishes at higher power levels. LEDs also survive sharp blows that often break conventional lightbulbs.

LED flashlights are often electronically regulated to maintain constant light output as the batteries are depleted. By contrast, the output of a non-regulated flashlight changes proportionally to the voltage of the battery, resulting in a significant decline in output as battery capacity - and thus voltage - drops as the flashlight is used. LEDs also have the advantage of maintaining a specific color temperature regardless of input voltage or current, while the color temperature of an incandescent bulb declines with the power available.

While lower-power LED flashlights generate little heat, more powerful LED lights do generate significant amounts of heat – although not as radiant energy, as the semiconductor junction inherently dissipates heat. For this reason higher-powered LED flashlights usually have aluminum bodies and can become quite warm during use. The aluminum bodies act as a heatsink for the high-power LED. Very few high-output LED flashlights use a plastic body, since plastics do not conduct heat as well as metals.

Floodlights
Enlux, a company in Arizona, has created floodlights built from LEDs. They did this by removing the diodes from their individual plastic housings and led-floodlight.jpgclustering them on a heat-dissipating circuit board, known as a light engine. They also created finned aluminum housing that spreads the heat across its surface. The 22-watt floodlight gives off about as much brightness as a 45- to 65-watt incandescent bulb.
The real energy efficient comes in with the colored floodlights, which are ten times as efficient as their incadescent counterparts.
These lights also have all the usual benefits of LEDs: long life (35 years), durability and low operating temperature.



Spotlight
We supply outdoor and indoor LED Spotlight. Outdoor LED spotlights can be 10-140W. They are widely used in factories, gymnasiums, yards, advertising boards, buildings, lawns and garden designs and place where spot lighting is needed. Indoor LED spotlight can be GX5.3, GU10, E26, E27 and B22. PAR20, PAR30 and PAR38 model are also available. They are widely used as replacement of bulbs in general lighting.


Motion Sensors
LEDs are used in Motion Sensors rather than solar power due to the fact LEDs maximizes the electrical power available.

RBG color devices
White light can be produced by mixing differently colored light, the most common method is to use red, green and blue (RGB). Hence the method is called multi-colored white LEDs (sometimes referred to as RGB LEDs). Because its mechanism is involved with sophisticated electro-optical design to control the blending and diffusion of different colors, this approach has rarely been used to mass produce white LEDs in the industry. Nevertheless this method is particularly interesting to many researchers and scientists because of the flexibility of mixing different colors. [44] In principle, this mechanism also has higher quantum efficiency in producing white light.


Radios
LEDs are used in car radios and most radios. They are what cause the lighting and different colors on the screens of radios. Removing the incandescent bulbs and gluing the LEDs into the faceplate, creates wire leads to solder to the circuit board.


Telephones
The call incoming is provided with light emitting elements such as light emitting diodes (hereinafter, referred to as LEDs). The call incoming is provided with red (R), green (G) and blue (B) LEDs. When an incoming call is detected, the call incoming causes the LEDs to blink or just simply emit light in a predetermined mode so as to notify a user of call incoming. For example, the LEDs may emit light in synchronization with call incoming sound output from a speaker. By causing the LEDs of three colors to emit light independently, various colors may be produced. This is a normal function of the call incoming. Light emission as described may be referred to as normal light emission.

The LEDs of the call incoming may emit light of high luminance to provide an electronic flash light when the camera takes a photograph. It is desirable that a large number of LEDs are provided in an array in order to secure enough light quantity as an electronic flash light. The number of LEDs may differ from color to color. It is desirable that the number of LEDs for respective colors be determined to ensure that a white light is produced when all the LDS are fully taken advantage of, i.e. when all the LEDs emit light.
Led’s are used in phones. The flashing red light when you are getting a call is an LED light. They are used to signal incoming calls, missing call, and when you get a text message. Another use of LEDs in phones is in the camera-phones. The flash when you take a picture is an arrangement of LED lights.

Watches
LEDs are used in Digital watches. They cause the numbers on the clock to light up. All the lighting seen on digital watches is due to LED lights. The Hamilton/Pulsar was the first LED solid state digital watch . It is well documented in history through the US Patent office and the Smithsonian Institution. I also need to mention that the Seiko Watch Co. of Japan purchased the Pulsar name and owns all legal rights to the name. Any mention of the Pulsar name in reference to watches on this website is solely in respect to the old original Pulsar LED watches that were manufactured by Timlamp.jpge Computer, Inc. before name was sold.

LED Projection Lamps
The present-day invention of the LED projection lamp is for stage use which is of low energy consumption and high stability. The light emission of LED is controlled by program called a Fresnel lens which is provided in front of the LED to project a geometrical figure in certain distance. It is of long lifetime and high reliability. The present invention comprises a lamp body, wherein the lamp body is provided with a program control PCB, the program control PCB is electrically connected to a LED panel, the LED panel is provided on the lamp body, a Fresnel lens is provided in the front portion of the lamp body. With the LED projection lamp, a geometrical figure can be obtained in a certain distance. The LED projection Lamp is of simple configuration and high stability.


LED Displays

LEDs can be used in large displays such as street signs, billboards, outdoor or indoor screens. Most outdoor screens and some indoor screens are built around discrete LEDs, also known as individually mounted LEDs. Blue, red, and green diodes form together to make a giant picture or display. Each pixel in the diode is spread evenly apart to form absolute pixel resolution.

LED Display Usage: The LED Display in Las Vegas that covers the Fremont Street Experience is largest in the world.





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Types


One type of LED is a blue LED. Blue LEDs are based on the wide band gap semi conductors GaN and InGaN. One quality of Blue LEDs is that they can be added to red and green LEDs to create “White Light”( most LEDs are not used for that purpose today).
Jaques Panvoke created the first Blue LEDs in 1971; however they did not produce much light.
Several Different Classifications of LEDs are Miniature LEDs, High power LEDs, and Super Flux LEDs. Miniature LEDs are simple and are from 4mm to 8mm in diameter.
Highpower LEDs are extremely powerful and bright, they produce a lot of heat and have to have a heatsink to help them cool off or else the device will burn out in seconds. These types of LEDs are used in highpowered flashlights, or lamps. Today some LEDs sold by Cree Inc. are used in replacing incandescent , halogen and fluorescent style light bulbs.
LEDs have been developed by Seoul Semiconductor that can operate on AC power without a DC converter. During each half cycle a part of the LED emits light and the other part is dark. This is reversed during the next half cycle. A large number of LED elements in series may be able to operate directly from line voltage.
SuperFlux LEDs provide large areas of light and a wide viewing angle in a small compact diode

LEDs usually come in three types- miniature LED, High Power LED, and Application based LED.
Miniature LEDs- come in various single die LEDs used as indicators, and come in many different sized packages
Alphanumeric LEDs- LED displays come in 7 segments and starburst format
Lighting LEDs- have low voltage and have a lot of AC main lightning.
Multicolor LEDs- have two different colored dice that can produce 3 different colors and are connected back to back.
Tricolor LEDs- have 3 wire connections and have 2 different colored dice; they are available in common anode or common cathode configurations.
RGB LEDs- uses a 4 wire connection with red, green and blue emitters.
5 and 12 volt LEDs- can be connected to a 5 or 12 volt power source. These LED’s are miniature and incorporate a series resistor.
Flashing LEDs- when connected to 5 or 12 volts Flashing LEDs flash. They are used to attract attention.
Our LED Light bulbs have duel voltage and come in many different sizes. The sizes that the LED lights come in are LED medium base, LED candelabra base, LED PAR20, LED PAR30, LED PAR38, LED RGB Color Changing, LED GU10.

  • Multicolor LED
    • Multicolor LED have two dice of different colors connected back to back, and can produce any of 3 colors. Current flow in one direction produces one color, current in the other direction produces the other color, and bidirectional current produces both colors mixed together.
  • Tricolor LED
    • Tricolor LEDs contain 2 dice of different colors with a 3 wire connection, available in common anode or common cathode configurations. The most common form of both the bicolor and tricolor LEDs is red/green, producing orange when both colors are powered.
  • RGB LED
    • RGB LEDs contain red, green and blue emitters, generally using a 4 wire connection with one common (anode or cathode).


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White LEDs

White Leds can be made in two ways. The first is to combine the three primary colors, red, green, and blue light, to form white. For this reason they are sometimes called RGB LEDs (RGB for red, green, blue) or Multi-colored LEDs. There are several types of these multi-colore
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RGB System
d LEDs: dichromatic, trichromatic, and tetrachromatic. Dichromatic LEDs have the best luminous efficiency but a lower color rendering capability. On the other hand, tetrachromatic white LEDs have a very good color rendering capability but a poor luminous efficiency. The second way is to convert blue or
UV LED to a broad-spectrum white light which is much like the workings of fluorescent light bulbs. White LEDs are also much more expensive than other colors of LED lights are.

RGB systems

This system is one of the two ways to create white LEDs. It combines red, green, and blue LED light to make
white light. The process involves a sophisticated electro-optical design and is therefore not commonly used to
mass produce the white LED lights.


Manufacturers and Sellers


Sellers

During the past fourteen years, LED in general has become rapidly manufactured by various companies around the world, sensing a multi-billion dollar trade. Situated mostly in southern Asia, where they are mass produced cheaply, and then shipped across the world where they are sold under the guise of various companies, such as Home Depot, Lowe’s, and Ace’s Hardware. After it was discovered that LED’s could be used to produce better quality lighting in visual objects, major companies jumped on the chance to acquire this light. While major electronic and gaming companies used them in their projects, others such as Home Depot, Lowes, Ace, and any small town company sell them as a regular light fixture.
Home Depot is probably an American icon, representing America’s need for raw supplies to build a better future.The company not only sells LED’s, but also Xenon as well.Home Depot, being a warehouse, usually sells either pole lights or motion activated lights, very rarely selling common household bulbs. However, Home Depot’s prices are fairly high, ranging from 30 60 dollars per bulb.
Lowe’s and Ace are the same type of store as home depot, a easily built and vastly rich empire of low cost supplies. However, Lowe’s is found to be more reliable, while Ace is less costly to the Average Joe.
Shenzhen G-uni Optoelectronic CO.Ltd is a China based company that specializes in the selling of environmentally friendly and low electricity LED’s. Their main buyers are the Middle East, Asia, and Europe. Shenzhen has been in business for almost sixty years, a very odd number among other competitors.
PE Electronic Supply is a locally run company based in Taiwan with a specialization in Infrared and LED displays. The company really is local, distributing all over Taiwan. Beginning in 2001, it is currently the biggest seller of LED's in Taiwan, with plans on broadening its view to Asia and Africa.


LED Companies


LEDtronics- LEDtronics was founded in 1983 by Pervaiz Lodhie and Almas Lodhie. The company is located in California. Since 1983 they have been a leader in producing environmentally friendly and long life lamps. They have made astonishing advances in the LED community. They have created a LED lamp that is 90% more efficient the normal incandesct light bulbs. When they created the lamp it was 20% better efficiency then the leading LED lamp at that time. This company does not make only lamps, they make warning lights, full spectrum LED’s, gaming LEDs, camping flashlights, automotive LEDs, infrared LEDs for radar use, and many other types for many different uses. All their products that they sell are of very high quality, they aim to satisfy their customers and they offer some of the best warranty for their products in the business. They stand behind their products 100%, so it is a good idea to do business with them.
LED Manufacturers
Ledman Inc.- Ledman Optoelectronic Co., Ltd. is a proficient company at making hi-tech electronic and industrial equipment. One of their biggest productions is LED components and display. They have had many years of research on the development, production, and marketing of LEDs. Ledman, as a company has and is bringing new techniques for LEDs. The company as a whole has award winning technology and employers in their LED production facilities. The LEDs that this company makes is used for car lights, traffic lights, and industrial lighting display.
LED IDEA- Established in 1986, LED IDEA has come to be one of the most reliable LED manufacturers. All of their products are assembled in the U.S. which enables them to have great quality and good customer service. LED IDEA has a large selection of products. Based in California, they have many manufacturing plants and ship world wide. They specialize in infrared and smaller LED’s used in displays. Other things they make include lamps, calculator LEDs, dot matrixes, and bi-colored LEDs.
Lumex Inc.-
Lumex Inc. is a company completely based off the sole purpose of manufacturing LEDs. Lumex is a renowned company in the LED world. They split off ITW Inc. in 2004 so they independent rule over their LED products. The company is known for its high standard on its employers, and expensive manufacturing machines. When LED demand grew to the international stage, Lumex then began to build facilities in Taiwan and China. They did this for two reasons: to have headquarters in Asian countries, and for cheaper labor. They made their original factory as their international headquarters, and to this day they have high demand on their LED products.
Gold Valley Inc.- Gold Valley Optoelectronics Co., Ltd, or GVO (for short) is a Chinese based company that was founded in 2001. Their main facilities are in Shanghai, Xian, and Langfang industrial district of Beijing. GVO is a LED company manufacturer that only makes LEDs and LED components. They sell directly to the middle man stores, and known for their reliable products. They also help local businesses in the US and Europe use LEDs for signs on their stores for advertisement purposes. GVO’s product categories are High Brightness LED, High Flux LED, and LED based electronics modules, and LED lighting. Their different product categories are split into different offices to organize their company. This same division of categories in their offices is also present in their factories. They also have a strong belief in the green technology (environmental safe) advances. GVO’s products are all green approved, and their products are used everyday.


LED in the Market Place
There are many different Markets for LED’s. The mechanisms are used in everything from televisions to flashlights. In any case these tiny light bulbs are booming in both the public and private market place. With a bright future and many new inventions to come, the time to buy is now. The average sale price of three top companies ( Cree, Advanced Photonics, Fairchild Semicond,) totals out to be $20.61. It is hard to say with these numbers, and a bright future in LED technology; that these companies will slow down. So buy or invest now, who knows what time may hold.

Company
Symbol
Market
Price Last Quarter (9/30/09)
Current Price
(11/6/09)

CREE
CREE
NASDAQ
$36.75
$44.31
Advanced Photonics
API
AMEX
$8.63
$8.73
Fairchild Semicond
FCS
NYSE
$10.23
$8.21
Ixys Corporation
IXYS
NASDAQ
$7.72
$6.61

LED's Come in Many Different Shapes and Sizes.




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