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    Laptops are portable computers made to run without a power outlet using chargeable batteries. Laptops include all the same materials as a PC including, a screen, a keyboard, and a trackball, or track pad also known as a mouse. Laptops are notebook computers that are battery of AV- powered.

    A modern Apple laptop.

    They are cordless and are usually smaller than a briefcase. Laptops are easily transported and easy to manage. They are a convenient alternative to a desktop computer because the can be used in airplanes, car trips, meeting, and public libraries. Most laptops are less than 5 pounds in weight and usually less than three inches thick. Some common manufacturers of laptops are Dell, IBM, and Apple.

    History of Laptops

    • The idea for laptops was first conceived in the 1970’s when Xerox started to experiment with an idea for a portable computer called the Dynabook. The technology at this time was not advanced enough to support this idea, however, so it was never developed past the research stage.
    • The first real laptop was born in 1982 with the creation of the GRID Compass. It had a flat screen monitor that folded down on the keyboard and ran on battery power. It never took off, however, due to its IBM compatibility and high price. It was mainly used by the military and NASA.
    • In 1983, the Epson HX-20 and Compaq Portable were introduced, and they were more user friendly than previous laptops. The Compaq Portable was compatible with both IBM and MS-DOS operating systems. The Epson HX-20 ran on rechargeable batteries and was easy to operate.
    • The Kyocera Kyotronic 85 was the most popular computer of the early 80’s due to its small size and affordable price. It was popular for journalists and correspondents, and it could run on regular AA batteries. It was about the size of a standard notebook.
    • Apple did not get involved in the laptop business until 1989 with the release of the Macintosh Portable. It had a clear picture and long battery life, but it was to heavy and cumbersome to become competitive in the business. They had great success with their 1991 Powerbook series, which revolutionized the industry with a touchpad mouse and other modern technologies.
    • The introduction of the Windows 95 operating system in 1995 by Microsoft standardized laptop design. Current laptops have improved display, battery power, processors and network connectivity, to make them useful tools for people of all ages and walks of life..


    Basic Parts of a Laptop

    A laptop includes most of the typical components of a regular desktop computer. The basic parts of a laptop are the screen, keyboard, touchpad, speakers, battery, and AC Adaptor. There are also the hardware pieces inside of the computer and additional peripherals that allow it to accomplish additional tasks.

    Most laptop screens are using pixel bright LCD. When looking at a laptop, there are three qualities to look for: the screen size, graphics processor, and resolution. There are a variety of different screen sizes depending on the name and make of the laptop. Large screens are normally used for laptops that are inside_of_a_laptop.jpgreplacing a desk top where as small screens are commonly used on laptops that are meant to be portable. The screen is measured on the diagonal. It is typically measured from the lower screen corner to the opposite upper corner. A graphics processor is necessary for high definition. The screen resolution is the number of pixels in the display listed in the number across the screen by the number down the screen. The higher the resolution, the better the picture. Below is a list of different types of resolutions:
    • WVGA: 800x480
    • SVGA: 800x600
    • WSVGA: 1024x600
    • XGA: 1024x768
    • WXGA: 1280x800 or 1366x768
    • SXGA: 1280x1024
    • SXGA+: 1400x1050
    • WXGA+: 1440x900
    • WSXGA+: 1680x1050
    • UXGA: 1600x1200
    • WUXGA: 1920x1200 or 1920x1080


    The keyboard on your laptop will allow you to type. It is one of the most important components of your laptop. It is very important to keep your laptop key board clean or it will wear out and will have to replace it. Most people will just wipe it down with a wet wipe, but optimus-keyboard.jpgthat does not get in between the keys. To get in the keys you will need a cotton swab and some rubbing alcohol. You will need to get just a little bit of the rubbing alcohol on the cotton swab and rub in between the keys, make sure to dry everything. If your keys are sticky the are is no need to replace them just clean them. If a key has popped off, don’t replace it yet, there is a way to. If the keyboard is beyond repair, you will have to replace it. To do this, you must find a key board that is compatible with your laptop, one that is made by the same company. The replacement keyboard will come with instructions so you can replace it yourself, or you can take it to a computer repair place.


    A touchpad or track pad is a pointing device consisting of a soft pad sensitive to finger movement or pressure. It translates the motion and position of a user’s fingers to a relative position on the screen. Today there are several different ways in which touchpads operate. Two examples are capacitance and conductance. Capacitance based touchpads will not sense the tip of an object such as a pencil. Also, fingers wearing gloves will generally cause problems along with sweaty or callused fingers. The touchpad is used especially on laptop computers as an alternative to a mouse. You can tap on the surface of the pad as an alternate to pressing on one of the touchpad keys. The buttons above or below the pad act as an alternate mouse buttons. Usually, the usertouchpad.jpg may also click by tapping their finger on the touchpad. Today, some touchpads have “hotspots”. These are certain locations on the touchpad that indicate intentions other than pointing the mouse. For example, some touchpads will act as a scroll wheel if you move the finger along the edge of the touchpad. Some touchpads also allow for tap zones. These are regions in which a tap will execute a function. For example these regions can launch different applications. Although they vary in size, they are usually about six inches.


    There are two types of speakers in a laptop: internal and external. The internal speakers are used for listening to music and are very important when doing buffalo-usb-powered-speakers.jpgpresentations. Internal speakers should be used when doing presentations so that the whole room will be able to hear the presentation. External speakers are used when participating in a web conference for example, therefore you are able to hear every participant clearly. This type of speakers provides a variety of features that enhance the presentation and make it easier to participate in web conferences.


    Each laptop has to have a battery. Most of them have a rechargeable battery and come with a cord that is plugged into a wall and used to charge the laptop’s battery. The older versions of batteries do not have as long of a life span and the new lithium based batteries, which have a 30% longer lifespan. That problem with these types of batteries is that they overheat faster then the older ones and last only about 750 charges, as opposed to older types that lasted around 1,500 charges. When buying a battery, the consumer should make sure that it has at least a one year warranty, because the 3-month warranties are likely to end right before the battery dies and you will need to buy a new one, the best idea is to find a battery with a lifetime warranty if atlaptop-battery-for-compaq-compaq-n600c.jpg all possible. Li-ion and Li-poly are the most advanced types of batteries, but the Ni-cad and Ni-MH are the most basic types of battery. As for power, you will want to look for the battery with the most milliamperes, The best thing to look for is the watt-hours, this can be found by multiplying the volts and the milliamperes, the answer is your watt-hour. When you get a new battery and need to dispose of the old one, do not throw it out. Because of environmental concerns the best thing to do with it is to recycle it.

    AC Adapter

    Laptops are powered by AC adapters which are the electronic power supply for all laptops. The laptop battery requires an AC adapter in order to run. It gives enough energy to run the laptop for 2 to 3 hours. In order for the energy to be used it needs to be converted from AC to DC. The adapter contains different circuits including transistors and vacuum tubes which are required to convert the external energy into electrical signals that are able to be used by laptops. The most common energy source for the electronic circuits is used by converting energy from the AC adapter into the needed voltage or current. The converter can be used for many different types of circuits. Other forms of energy include Batteries, Solar power, fuel cells, and Generators.
    The conversion process from the AC adapter to the DC energy is called rectification. This process converts ac voltage to an average or dc value waveform by Laptop-AC-Adapter.jpgpassing one polarity (half-wave) or absolute value (full-wave) or by the generating the magnitude of the wave. There are three types of rectifiers, or diode, that are used commonly. One of the diodes is required to receive half-wave rectification. Using four diodes connected in a bridge configuration, full-wave rectification can be received. Full-wave can also be obtained by using two diodes and a transformer. In order to increase or decrease voltage and separate the dc output from the ac input, transformers are used at the input of the rectifiers. This is also a safety precaution.
    For most uses, the ac or alternating portion of the output that has been rectified is not wanted because of the hum in audio systems that it makes. In order to get rid of this, a capacitor can be used to reduce the ac portion of the waveform that has been rectified. The diodes are used to charge the capacitor at the peak ac voltage except for the diode forward voltage. There is charge stored in the capacitor that is delivered in different cycles however the next voltage peak is what charges the capacitor. An electric filter can also be used.


    Computer peripherals refer only to the input output devices of a computer, but computer accessories refer to all of the parts that support a computer such asweb_cam.jpg motherboards and chips. There are many examples of peripherals that can be used with laptops today. Some examples are cameras, scanners, disk drives, printers, and microphones.

    Common Names:

    Compaq Laptop

    · Lap Desktop
    · Notebook
    · Lap computer
    · Slim top
    · Personal computer
    · Palm top
    · Workstation
    · Laptop
    · Minicomputer
    · Micro computer
    · Journal

    Pricing and Comparison:




    Vostro Laptops & Netbooks- Built for Small Businesses with simple or no networks. = === ===

    Mac Air – 4x graphics performance boost, bigger hard drive than most laptops.

    Vostro A90 – 8.9 - $249 Vostro 1320 – 13.3 - $579 Vostro 1510 – 15.4 - $494 Vostro 1520 – 15.4 - $619 = === ===

    -1.6 Hz-2GB Memory-$1799
    -1.86 GHz-2GB Memory-$2499==== ====

    Processor -Intel® Atom Processor$#174; N270
    Memory 1GB DDR2 533MHz,
    SDRAM 1 DIMM ====SSD=
    16GB Solid State Drive ==== = === ===
    **Processor-1.6GHz or 1.86GHz Intel Core 2 Duo processor with 6MB on-chip shared L2 cache running 1:1 with processor speed==== ====1066MHz frontside bus====


    HP vs. Dell

    Dell is generally cheaper but sometimes they will not have the build quality in and other features in comparison to comparison to HP. Dell's laptops design appears more bulky as well as being more standard and bland looking compared to the HP.
    I would recommend HP over Dell if you don’t have a problem with spending more money. HPs offer more style and room for customization how ever it tends to be more pricy. So from one point of view if price doesn’t matter then HP is better. So it realy comes down to which one is a better buy.
    Dell has always been leaders in the laptop industry as far as costs go. By selling all of their laptops direct from their manufactures, they avoid selling through retailers (aka the "middle-man").By doing this they are able to cut costs and sell their products for less.
    One thing is for certain, if you purchase a laptop from either one of the companies you are getting a quality laptop at a great price.
    If you are looking for an entertainment laptop, check out both products. Dell tends to have a standard (bland) look while HP has a glossier look and creative design which is most likely targeted to please the desires of a teen age to 20-30 year old age group.
    More people feel that HP has "better-looking" laptops. But you must keep in mind that the glossy design is very vulnerable to fingerprints and other smug marks their shiny look is more prone to fingerprint marks. This would require you to have to clean the outside a lot more to keep it looking clean and shinning.
    -Offers a huge amount of options. You can start with a $399 computer and bring it to over $1000 depending on what options you pick.
    -Customizable laptop tops and desktop panels allowing you to really put style into your computer.
    -Dell’s website is built very user friendly
    -Provides excellent customer service.
    -In some cases provides cheaper systems than Dell.
    -More models to choose from than Dell.
    -HP website is also very user friendly, but cannot compare to what Dell has.
    -Almost the same amount of options as Dell, but still lacking a few.
    Another thing to consider is sales. If anyone is picking between Dell and HP, they should defiantly take a look at the special offers that these companies might be having particularly around the holiday seasons. These sales can really affect the price on these computers. Aside from than that, the rest is mostly all about preference. If you already own one of these systems and you are completely happy with it, then you should continue with that brand instead of switching to the other. This way you don’t have too relearn a new computer company and you will already be familiar with the customer support which is also a huge factor to take into consideration.

    Mac vs. Sony

    Given the differences between standard PC and Mac, it is hard to compare these two product line based on similar features alone. Many people who have used Mac say they prefer it greatly over the latter, boasting its better quality, and it’s being less susceptible to viruses. So it would seem among the people who have used both, Mac books would be the preferred choice, but the range of consumers who buy PC laptops, such as Sony, are a hefty majority.
    Most of it boils down to what features come with the laptop itself.
    Mac has a very limited selection of Mac books; with the 15 to 17 inch Mac book and the Mac book air, there is very little variety, but the Air boasts being the thinnest notebook in the world today.
    However Sony has its line of notebooks ranging from its 8 inch to its 18 inch notebooks all with lots of options to choose from offering significant variety in their product line.

    Types of Laptops

    Ultralights: (AKA sub-notebooks or ultraportables)

    This style of laptop weighs up to four pounds which makes them ideal for travelers. However, in order to cut down on the size and weight ultralights, are so small that there’s no room for a network card or internal CD drive. Another negative in the scenario is that ultralights tend to be rather expensive.


    Notebooks are basically just a regular laptop, but slightly less heavy, weighing four to six pounds. It’s heavier than the smaller ultralight, but it offers more options with fewer to-dos. Notebooks are designed with a large opening on the side to plug a CD drive, floppy disk or extra battery, unlike Ultralights.

    Standards: (AKA “regular laptops”)

    These weigh between six and eight pounds and offer a full range of benefits. It is the best buy when you consider the cost/performance ratio. These laptops are also less expensive due to their popularity, design, and usability. Out of the four main types of laptops, the standard is the most cost-effective and beneficial.

    Extra Large:


    This type of laptop doesn’t have a technical name, it’s simply referred to as “extra large,” since they weigh between eight and ten pounds and have a screen that measures at least 17 inches. Also, the keyboard is much larger than a standard laptop. Some downfalls to extra large laptops include its weight and the cost. The four pound difference between the weight of a standard and an extra large laptop can be quite a bit when you think about lugging it around all day. The price of these laptops is also quite large.

    Business Laptops

    Business laptops are used for handling any business needed. Dell, Hp, Lenovo, and Sony laptops are good companies for business laptops. For business laptops, you need to have a fast and capable processor for multitasking. This would include the current Intel dual core processors; the Core 2 Duo, Pentium D and Celeron D, and AMD AM2 processors. The memory of business laptop should be more and better than most. Suggested minimum memory would be 1GB with 2GB being strongly recommended. The screen size of business laptops should be 5-17 inch screens. Storage in a good business laptop should have a hard drive big enough to store all your word documents, spreadsheets and presentations as well as any other pertinent information you need to store.

    Gaming Laptops

    Gaming laptops are used for performance, graphics and sound. Core 2 Duo Processor, Screen Size, More than 2GB Memory, Hard Drive Capacity, Video Card are good gaming laptops. Principle gamers’ laptops are fast and powerful with big high resolution monitors. They have powerful graphics processor and sound. Gaming laptops are usually cost more than others because they are the more powerful and, fully loaded.

    Multimedia Laptops

    Multimedia laptops are used for many different things like record TV, play movies, organize and play music, etc. PC Laptops, Mac Laptops, Expansion Ports, Screen Size, Hard Drive Capacity are good multimedia laptops. For these types or laptops you want to have the right connections. You need to make sure you have a port so you can connect to you TV. Multimedia laptops are good for watching movies and videos.

    Basic Laptops

    Basic laptops are for reading emails and surfing the web. Acer Laptops, HP Laptops, Mac Laptops, Sony Laptops, Toshiba Laptops are good basic laptops. All laptops can be used to browse the web and send or receive email, but keep in mind that it’s harder to upgrade a laptop and some things like video card and screen cannot be upgraded.

    Top 15 Laptops

    1 Hewlett Packard
    2 Sony
    3 Lenovo
    4 Toshiba
    5 Dell
    6 Acer
    7 ASUS
    8 IBM
    9 Fujitsu
    10 Panasonic
    11 Gateway
    12 British Telecom
    13 Apple
    14 Motion Computing
    15 Intel

    Common Uses for Laptops

    1. Educational purposes
    2. Company and store workspace and communication place
    3. Smaller than a PC
    4. Bigger than a phone
    5. User friendly for all ages
    6. Internet usage
    7. Portability
    8. Personal computer designed for mobile use
    9. Library usage
    10. Space around the desk (smaller)

    Possible Future Applications and New Technologies of Laptops

    Even in 2009, people still feel that laptops aren’t sleek enough and are too heavy. Laptops with a 14 inch screen weighing only three or less pounds and lasting up to eight hours with battery life are expected to come in 2011.
    What might enterprise notebooks look like in three years? Kevin Wrenn, senior vice president of PC business operations for Fujitsu Computer Systems says, "The ideal notebook in three years will weigh three pounds, offer a 14-inch screen [and] deliver eight hours of battery life," Wireless wide area network (WWAN) will be standard in all laptops. Wrenn also believes that hard drive capacity will reach beyond 300GB and solid state drives will surpass 100GB.
    Laptops will soon advance its onboard network components to maintain the new MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) wireless LAN technology. This is useful as to avoid users having to buy a PCMCIA external card. It will also carry on the roll of WWAN support (which allows users to connect their notebooks up to 3G mobile networks for Web surfing on the go) across its notebook range.


    Future HP notebooks are expected to come with bar-code reader, solar charge cells and a bracelet for controlling blood pressure, and pulse.


    Performance is become an ever more important thought in future notebook purchase. Two key applications will be the bases of the demand for performance are Windows Vista (especially for its Aero graphics capabilities) and "security software".


    The life of the battery will be of high importance in the future. We are moving closer to laptops that’s battery can run for a full working day on a one battery. Lenovo is making a notebook that will have a run for eight hours using Lithium Ion technology. Future ThinkPad will be designed with raising displays and removable keyboards



    The prototype XO-2 is the second machine created by the One Laptop Per Child foundation. It is a cheap learning tool for children who live in impoverished and developing communities. It’s been built with real life conditions since it’s energy efficient, and can withstand very extreme weather conditions. This laptop is expected to come in 2010.

    The Compenion


    The Compenion concept notebook created by Felix Schmidberger in Stuttgart, Germany, borrows heavily from slider cell phones. Rather than lifting the lid open, just slide it up. The pair of superbright organic LED panels slide into place next to each other. The lower panel acts as a keyboard or scribble pad. The whole thing is only three-quarters of an inch thick.


    The Siafu

    Jonathan Lucas' Siafu concept can touch you, literally. Siafu is for the blind and has no screen. "The idea was to open a new realm of digital interface for the visually impaired by enhancing and even surpassing existing technologies that currently cater to this group," said Lucas. Siafu converts images into corresponding 3-D shapes that are created with Magneclay, an oil-based synthetic material that instantly forms shapes in response to electrical fields. The blind interact with your fingers to feel the bumps that pop up. The Magneclay surface could be used for reading a Braille newspaper, feeling the shape of someone's face or going over a tactile representation of a blueprint.

    Apple stores in Georgia.


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