Gold 1 Computer Systems




The Radio

The Radio
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Electromagnetic Waves
: A Definition


The radio is the wireless transmission and reception of electric impulses or signals by means of electromagnetic waves. It is also the wireless transmission through space of electromagnetic waves in the approximate frequency range from 10 kilohertz to 300,000 megahertz. The radio is used as a common medium of communication based on broadcasting electromagnetic waves.

The Evolution of Radio
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Radio History Timeline


The radio has a lengthy history. It all started in 1831 when the first real step towards the radio was taken. Michael Faraday discovered electro magnetical induction. Telegrams were the beginning of the radio. On June 3, 1898 a telegram was the first to be played from Needles. Many of the major Dutch broadcasting stations
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Old-fashioned Radio
was founded during the mid twenties. Crystal set w
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Old Radio Ad
here very popular in the pioneering days, they where also called “cat whiskers.” In 1919 the first two way conversation occurred between a sub and another vessel which began the first real breakthrough for radios. By the year 1920, the first commercial radio in the US took place in Detroit. In 1921 Scientists started seeing the possibilities of short waves. The first broadcast of a sports event was a boxing match in Pittsburgh. The first religious broadcast occurred in 1921 in Pittsburgh. Since then the appeal for religion and religious music in broadcasting has greatly increased. The first radio broadcast of a baseball game and the World Series took place in 1921, which has set the stage for all games today. 1923 brought the first presidential radio message delivered by Calvin Coolidge. 1924 brought new breakthroughs for the radio. In this year, the first foreign language on a US radio was produced. Radios where and still are being used for Propaganda, promoting products, public announcements, world news, and music broadcasts. In 1927, Jimmie Rogers had his first recording section in Tennessee.
The 30’s brought new and challenging experiences from the United States with the radio. In January of 1932, the famous Ed Sullivan Show premiered on CBS radio. In October of the same year, the Fred Allen Show also premiered, but on a different station. The Aldrich Family premiered with their comedy on NBC of 1939. The 1930’s brought a lot of new concepts to the radio and helped bring the radio to where it is today. The 40’s consisted of many new advances for the radio. The first NFL championship was announced in 1940 between the Bears and the Redskins. Lassie premieres on ABC network and later on the radio in 1947. A few events also took place in the 50’s including the premiere of I Lov
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The Radio Today
e Lucy. The first recording of a radio show on a magnetic tape occurred in 1952 in Los Angeles.
In the 60’s, 70’s and 80’s, little events occurred in the progress of the radio. The fist ground radio station to an aircraft happened. In the 70’s the first rock and roll station premieres in ’79, called the Source. Finally in the 80’s, the $3.5 billion purchase of ABC radio was bought. The radio has made many improvements over the years and will continue to advance in years to come.

Radio History Video



How Radios Work


1. Stations bundle digital audio signals and analog using textual data including the weather, artist and song information, and traffic.
2. Using iBiquity’s HDC compression technology, the digital signal layer is compressed.
3. The combined analog and digital signals are transmitted.
4. Multipath distortion occurs when part of a signal bounces off an object and arrives at the receiver at a different time than the main signal. HD radio receivers sort through the reflected signals and reduce static.
5. The signal then becomes compatible with HD Radio receivers and analog radios

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Radio Antennae
Any radio setup has two parts, a transmitter and a receiver. The transmitter contains a system to change some property of the energy and produce a signal. This change could be turning the radio on and off or tuning into a different station. Both the transmitter and receiver use antennas to receive radio signals.
The sound waves of a radio program go through a microphone and create vibration in the energy current as they travel through wires to a control room. Technicians control the volume, sending the waves out through a transmitter by moving electrical charges rhythmically up and down through an antenna. The transmitter takes some of the messages and sends them out as radio waves. The waves expand out in all directions, like a ripple effect to different stations. Each station is assigned a different channel (electrical path) by the FCC and the waves travel to this station by a certain frequency. We receive radio waves in our homes by radio antennas. When you turn the dial the radio tunes into the same frequency as the radio waves sent out by the station.
An amplifier in the radio strengthens these waves and speakers change theses waves into the same sound waves that entered the microphone in the studio. Because radio waves travel at the speed of light, people in New York can hear a broadcast from California before the studio audience does.



The Evolution of Satellite Radio, Internet Radio, and HD Radio


SATELLITE RADIO
Satellite radio, one of the more popular radio types these days, is basically the formation of a digital signal that becomes broadcast by a satellite orbiting earth, which allows for a much wider range than FM or AM type radios, or for the technical’s here, terrestrial radio. Satellite radios offer many more features and extra convenience. There are a variety of
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Sirius Radio
different service providers, such as XM or Sirius, or Worldspace. These commercial providers are able to cover a much larger space of market than their land-based competitors. For this reason, satellite radio has been gaining ground in the financial market for several years. The low cost, numerous benefits, and other features makes satellite radio a more popular choice, on the rise against the common radio that has been in use for many years.


Sirius Satellite Radio Logo
Sirius Satellite Radio Logo
The definition of satellite radio is as follows: A broadcasting system or network where high quality radio is transmitted by a satellite down to earth-based systems, where the common consumer can listen to music, news, weather, sports, and other types of programs. At first, the thought of a broadcast signal from space would be un-thinkable. People had become so accustomed to FM and AM radio that they didn’t think they wanted to change. But the benefits soon became apparent. The first of these satellites were actually two. XM Radio launched “Rock” and “Roll.” These would be the very first of the broadcasting satellite radio. Satellite radio can trace it’s roots back to DARS, or Digital Audio Radio Service, which was created to establish audio frequencies for the upcoming satellite radio services. DARS itself was established by the FCC, which monitors all radio frequencies to this day. DARS held an auction for licenses to be satellite radio service providers. CD Radio, which would become Sirius Radio, and American Mobile Radio, later to become XM Radio, won out on the licenses, cementing their place in what is turning into a very profitable market. XM Radio would launch their service in the spring of 2001, and Sirius would launch theirs in February of 2002. Both would be above a subscription of over a million by 2004. Satellite radio is much more advanced than AM/FM radio. Simple radios use small electronic parts to transmit their signal, which depending on the frequency, can be either very weak or strong. Satellite radio uses a satellite to it’s advantage. These days, it’s evolved from the simple radio to entire systems broadcasting signals all over the globe. Small circuits have been replaced by huge computers and high-tech networks.

INTERNET RADIO
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Various Internet Radio Logos
Internet radio is a cheaper alternative to the AM radios. The Internet radio has a global connection unlike the satellite radios and it allows viewers to create their own radio shows, in fact there are more than 4,000 broadcasts on the Internet! In order to use the internet radio one needs a computer, an internet connection, a phone, headsets and software. Internet radio also, is not just limited to audio; it as well can have pictures, graphics, texts, or links. It also can have chat rooms or message boards. The possibilities of the internet radio are endless.
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Pandora.com, Popular Site
Pandora.com, Popular Site

Originally the idea of having the radio available from the internet was formed by Carl Malamud. He created the first “Internet Talk Show” in 1993, but it wasn’t until 1995 when the internet radio truly became popular. However the “Internet Talk Show” Carl created was not the first official radio station on the internet, because the first radio station on the internet was called Ibibio which was introduced in November 7, 1994. Internet radio became more and more popular over the next couple of months. Starting in 1995 when commercial internet radios, such as Net Radio, were introduced and then more and more channels began. All the radio stations being created were abruptly stopped when in 2002 USA brought forth the process called Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel (CARP). This law insured that all radio companies must pay royalties to CARP. Many small radio companies couldn’t afford the high fees that were insisted on being paid in the USA, so these small radio companies moved from the USA to places where these fees were not being paid.

HD RADIO
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HD Radio
HD radio is a new technological advancement not to be confused with high definition television. HD stands for “Hybrid Digital”. HD radio is different from analog radio because HD radio sends more information using a digital signal. The digital signal is compressed via computer much like MP3. Because of the digital signal, HD radio allows for multicasting, or multiple stations on one frequency. For example, one station like 104.7 can have up to two other different HD channels on the same frequency 104.7. In addition, the digital signal permits for more information such as text such as the artist’s name and the song title. Some receivers come with a unique feature of tagging. This means one can hit a button and the receiver will store the information of that certain song. Also, HD radio has a crisp sound with exceptional quality. AM sounds like FM, and FM sounds like a CD. HD radio allows radio stations to send out not one analog signal but a bundle of both digital and analog signals. Analog radio signals bounce off buildings creating static. However, HD radio receivers actually sort the signals reducing unnecessary noises that disrupt the sound. Overall, HD radio is just like traditional radio except it is more efficient. HD radio and analog radio use the same, free radio signals. In both cases, one just needs to buy the receiver. Also, it is the essentially the same process except HD radio has efficient modifications.
HD radio will most likely not replace analog radio. Analog radio will keep working. HD radio is just a nice improvement with nonessential benefits.
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The Process of HD Radio

The Process
1) The radio station sends out a bundled signal of both analog and digital signals.
2) The digital signals are compressed.
3) The analog and digital signals are transmitted.
4) The signals bounce off of many objects like buildings creating static. However, HD radio receivers sort through the signals eliminating hiss, crackles, and pops.
5) The signals reach their destination.

HD Radio and Its Promising Future




How Radio Stations Make Money


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Example of a Radio Station's Website
Radio Stations require money to keep a frequency channel in which others can tune in to with their radios to listen to said stations music and/or talk shows and anything else they may use the station for. But the radio station must also be making a large to medium amount of money through some way to pay their workers and get licenses to play music and such. The way in which these radio stations gain money is simply through advertising. Much like how t.v. has commercials between shows for products, services, etc., radio stations have advertisements between songs they play. Some commercials from the same company could be the same as a t.v. commercial but there is no video because it is a radio instead of a television.
Radio stations easily make money by advertising for businesses on their stations. They will have commercials on the air for companies, such as the Shane Company or Allstate Insurance. The companies will pay the radio stations to advertise for them. The more listeners the radio station has, the more companies will be interested in advertising on the air for that radio station. If a company wants to advertise on the radio using the most popular announcer of that station, the company will be forced to pay a lot of money. If they want to advertise during the morning and evening rush hours, the price goes up even more because that’s when the most people are listening. Radios also have web pages that they use for advertising as well. Another way that radio stations make money is a way that not many people know of, and radio stations don’t want the public to know. Some song artists and recording labels will pay the most popular radio stations to play their songs over and over again. This advertises their songs and their labels, and hopefully gets more customers to buy their music.


Radio Types and Prices


TYPES OF RADIOS
Most made radios are either radios that are installed into your car, docking radios which can dock in your car or at your home, or handheld portable radios. Popular brands that make these radios include Sirius, XM, and Pioneer. Sirius and XM Radio are major Satellite Radio makers.

RADIO PRICES


SATELLITE RADIO
Brand: Sirius


Portable Radios-

Radio
Price
STILETTO 2 Portable Satellite Radio
$279.99
STILETTO 100 Portable Satellite Radio
$199.99
STILETTO 10 Portable Satellite Radio
$149.99
SIRIUS S50 Radio with Car Kit
$179.99

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Sirius Satellite Radio

Docking Radios-
Radio
Price
Starmate 5 Dock & Play Radio + Vehicle Kit
$129.99
Stratus 5 Dock & Play Radio + Vehicle Kit
$49.99
Stratus 5 Dock & Play Radio + Vehicle Kit
$149.99
InV2 Radio + Vehicle Kit
$39.99
Starmate 3 Dock & Play Radio + Complete Vehicle Kit
$69.99
Stratus 4 Radio + Vehicle Kit
$39.99
Stratus Dock & Play Radio + Vehicle Kit
$39.99
Sportster 3 Dock & Play Radio + Vehicle Kit
$59.99

Brand: XM

Portable Radios-


Radio
Price
XMP3
$249.99
INNO
$199.99
SKYFI3
$109.99
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XM Satellite Radio

Docking Radios-

Radio
Price
XPRESSRC
$149.99
XPRESSEZ
$49.99
XPRESSR
$99.99
COMMANDERMT
$179.99
SKYFI3
$109.99
XPRESS
$79.99
ROADYXT
$79.99

DIGITAL RADIO
Brand: Pioneer

Portable and Docking Radios-

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Pioneer Radio

Radio

Price

inno2BK
$250.00
GEX-XMP3
$279.00
CD-INHOME1
$70.00
CD-INCAR2
$70.00
GEX-P10XMT
$200.00
GEX-P920XM
$100.00
CD-SB10
$60.00



Sources


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http://www.sirius.com/servlet/ContentServer?pagename=Sirius/Page&c=Page&cid=1130351706481
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http://www.dandavats.com/wp-content/uploads/old_radio.gif
http://pan1.fotovista.com/dev/1/0/00148201/l_00148201.jpg
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http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=73584&rendTypeId=35
http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=compact%20disk&db=luna

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