Robots


Definition of Robot


A mechanical device that has the capability of performing a variety of tasks on command or, according to instructions programmed in advance is a robot. A robot is a machine that is capable of gathering information regarding its environment (senses) and utilizing the information (thinking) to follow instructions to accomplish a task (acts).Robots come in many shapes and sizes with each having many unique abilities. Essentially, a robot is simply a computer with some type of mechanical body designed to perform a particular job. A robot moves and usually has one or more electronic senses; however, the robot’s senses are not nearly as powerful as a human’s sense of sight or hearing. Scientists are constantly trying to improve robots to make them see, hear and respond to the environment around them. Robots, unlike some humans, are hardworking and reliable. Work that is dangerous, boring or tiring for humans can be done by a robot who does not complain, need rest, food, or a vacation. The robot can travel where humans cannot, such as the surface of Mars, deep on the ocean floor or inside the radioactive part of a nuclear power plant. Some robots are used daily to work in factories, while others are highly experimental and use artificial intelligence to behave more and more like a living creature, able to act independently in changing environments.


Definition of Artificial Intelligenceexternal image asimo-robot-artificial-intelligence.jpg


Artificial intelligence is sometimes thought to be a branch of computer science as it is concerned with making computers behave more like human beings. Artificial intelligence combines science and engineering to make an intelligent machine as well as computer programs. The term artificial describes something that is made by human skills or something that is simulated. Intelligence is the computational aspect of reaching goals in the world. Varying intelligence can be seen among humans, animals and machines. Artificial intelligence is the ability of a computer or some other type of machine to perform activities that are usually thought to require some type of advance thought or intelligence. It is a type of computer science that is concerned with the development of machines that are capable of performing intellectual activities previously performed by humans. Humans have the intelligence through education and experience while artificial intelligence gives machines like robots the knowledge or intelligence to perform tasks.

Specifications and terminology related to topic


Autonomous- the process of independent thinking
Axis- allows a robot to bend in certain places
Bio-mimetic- the imitation of biological systems that occur in nature
Compensator- a remote device that involves multiple shear pads to help peg-in-hole operations. The shear pads are elastomers, also known as polymers and the device uses three to twelve of these shear pads
Dynamics- analysis that cause motion by force and energy
Interface- the separation between robots and equipment that is not nearby. The sensors that are required for communication between the devices use signals relaying input and output data.
Interlock- when the actions of a device are dependent on the actions of another device
Joint- point at which the parts of a device bend and move
Maintenance- Ensuring that robots are manufacturing and working properly and then repairing any problems that are later observed
Mechanical- the use of machines
Operator- the person or device that controls a robots actions and instructs it what to do
Program- Noun: a set of tasks to be performed
Verb: to create a set of tasks to be performed
Robot- a piece of equipment that is able to be programmed to perform quick and accurate operations
Software- A written program used by the computer to instruct the hardware to perform certain tasks


The History of Robotics


Robot like inventions have been designed and created as far back as 350 BC. One of the first recorded robots starts in Greece. Archytas, a mathematician, invents a mechanical pigeon that runs only on steam. Even great philosophers like Aristotle thought about robots, he once said “If every tool, when ordered, or even of its own accord, could do the work that befits it... then there would be no need either of apprentices for the master workers or of slaves for the lords.” In 200 BC The Greek inventor Ctesibus creates a water clock with figures that move on them. A very famous inventor, Leonardo DaVinci makes a mechanical knight that was designed to walk like a human. Around 300 years later, a Swiss clock maker invents three dolls that can draw, write, and even play music. Also, Joseph Jacquard builds automated looms that are controlled by punch cards. In 1847, George Boole shows logic in a mathematical form with his Boolean Algebra. 51 years later, Nikola Tesla builds a remote control robot boat, and sails it in Madison Square Garden. Karel Copek introduces the actual word “robot” in a play called Rossuum’s Universal Robots. The word robot comes from the Czech word “robota” that means compulsory labor. Sooner or later, robots start appearing in movies, such as the 1926 movie Metropolis, where a female robot “Maria”. Also in 1951, a robot named Gort is in the movie The Day the Earth Stood Still. These are just some thing that happened from 350 BC to the 1950’s.

At the start of the year of 1959 John McCarthy and Marvin Minsky started the Artificial Laboratory. Heinrich Ernst was a huge part of the history of robotics.
Soft Gripper 1
Soft Gripper 1
He created the MH-1 in 1961. The MH-1 is a computer operated mechanical hand. In the year of 1962 the first industrialize arm robot was created. At the Stanford research institute they created the first robot that can respond to its own actions in 1966. Victor Scheinman created the Stanford arm in 1969. Another invention was made by Stanford University and it was called the Stanford cart. It was used to be a line follower in 1970. In 1976, Shigeo Hirose created the first arm that could wrap that can grasp things and wrap around objects. This invention was called the Soft Gripper. The Stanford cart was rebuilt in 1979 by Hans Moraves. The new Stanford cart had an improved vision system and it was better navigation across a room full of obstacles. In 1981, Takeo Kanade built the direct drive arm witch is the first to have motors directly in the joints of the arms. Joseph Engelberger developed service robots in 1984. In 1987, automated selling of shares almost caused a meltdown in the stock market. The first walking robot, named Genghis, was developed in 1989. Dr. John Alder invented the Cyber Knife in 1992 that images the patients X-rays.

In 1993, researchers at Carnegie Mellon University developed Dante, an 8-legged walking robot. It was sent into Alaska to collect data of a harsh environment that would be similar to that of other planets. The mission was a failure when its tether snapped and Dante fell into a crater. Dante II was sent out on a mission a year later, and it was a success when it traveled to the crater of the Alaskan volcano, Mt. Spurr, to sample volcanic gases. In1993, the first prototype humanoid robot was developed by Honda, called the P1. In 1996, Honda created the P2, which led to the development and release of the P3, a completely independent bipedal humanoid walking robot. In 1998, Tiger Electronics created the hugely popular toy, FURBY. During the same year, Lego released MINDSTORMS. The MINDSTORMS product line is a system for inventing robots that continued to be developed. During 1998, the first robotic arm was fitted onto a person. It was called the Edinburg Modular Arm System (EMAS). In 1999, Sony released the first AIBO electr onic dog. Initially intended for the elderly in Japan, this product became hugely popular with kids in America. The Cye was released in the same year. It is a personal robot that was able to do a large variety or household chores. To kick of the decade, Honda unveiled the ASIMO. It is a human
Laser-Based Attention System
Laser-Based Attention System
oid robot that could walk around and detect its surroundings. The P1, P2, and P3 prototype robots all led up to the ASIMO, which went for sale in 2001. In August of the same year, the FDA cleared the Cyberknife. It is a frameless robotic radio surgery system invented at Stanford University. It is able to treat tumors anywhere in the body using radiation. The second generation of the AIBO robotic dog also came out in 2001. In 2003, the third generation of the AIBO came out and Epson created the world’s smallest robot in 2004.

In 2004 an embedded neuromorphic vision system suitable for mobile robotics applications. Or in other words a robotic eye. In 2005 Laser-Based Attention System was made this is for vision and image understanding so that the eyes can see better and the brain can process better. In 2006 a new invention is neurocontrollers for walking machines or a remote control walker. In 2007 an unmanned under water vehicle is invented and used. In 2008 Sensor-driven neural control for omnidirectional locomotion and versatile reactive behaviors of walking machines this means that the machine will react in the environment it is placed in and adapt. In 2009 Laser Scanner System for Autonomous Vehicle Navigation or in other terms a laser guided system of un manned vehicles.



Current Uses of Robots


Common uses of robots today include welding, moving materials, assembly, and spray finishing operations.

Welding: Robots can be used to weld parts either by moving the robot or by keeping the robot still and moving the parts move by the robot. Using stationary robots while the objects move by is more common and generally less expensive. The robots working in the assembly line are synchronized with each other and the speed of the assembly line.

Moving materials: This operation that robots perform is commonly referred to as pick and place operations. Loading and unloading pallets is the most common form of this operation. Robots must be able to sense how full the pallet is to do this, so their programming is very complex.

Assembly: Assembly is one of the most common uses of robots. A coordinated production system is necessary for production to be successful. Products have to be designed keeping in mind that fact that robot design will be used. Recently, robots have been used in the assembly of circuit boards, electronics, household appliances, and automobiles.

Spray finishing operations: Robots are mostly used for spray finishing operations in the production of automobiles. These operations are cost-effective and help minimize the need for environmental control that is normally used to protect the factory workers from fumes.

What is Produced:


Car Production/Manufacturing: Recently, automobile factories have been dominated by robots. In fact, there is one robot for every ten human workers. Those numbers are very high compared to prior statistics. They are extremely useful in production lines and make manufacturing a lot simpler. In these production lines, a vehicle is welded, glued an d painted. Lastly, the final piece is assembled at a series of robot stations. Currently, about 50% of all robots are used in automobile manufacturing.

Packaging: Robots come in handy when packaging goods and supplies from place to place. Things like equipment and automotive movement are able to be moved with the use of robots. Case, tray, bottle, and food packaging are just some of the different ways it can be done.

Electronics: Pick-and-place robots manufacture the electronic production of robots. Products like cameras, compass sensors, motor controls, drive systems, and speech synthesizers have come a long way in technology due to robotics.


Industry:

Healthcare - Robots are now being used in surgery. This allows for robots to be used even in remote areas. With these robots, the proper medical attention can be given to the patient without the risks that sometimes may take place.

Aerospace - Robots are now being used in outer space. This allows for more discovery without the danger of the astronauts. With robots going to space, less humans will b e used and the danger of their lives won’t be put into jeopardy.

Military- These robots are used to kill humans instead of saving them. Hopefully, mankind will use the robots as a use of warfare and not for unjust reasons.



The Different Types of Robotsmilitary-robot-1.jpg


Military Robotics
There is a wide variety of different types of robots and how they are used. For example there are the robots for military applications. These military robots resemble the robots of the future as seen in movies such as the “Terminator”, where the equipment ca n go into battle without any human involvement. The development of the military robots are still in top-secret phase, and very little know about the current level of development.
robotic-surgeon-hands.jpg
Medical Robotics
Then there are the robots used in medical applications. One of the major ways in the medical field that robotics are used is within surgeries. Robotic surgery is growing rapidly and it’s an area in which robots have been utilized effectively. The robots are very precise with there incisions and can d o everything from making smaller incisions to enabling doctors to operate remotely. Robotic surgery is advancing more and more as technology is improving.
[[image:file/view/robotic-surgeon-hands.jpg width="132" height="132"]]
Household RoboticsiRobot.jpg
Robots are also used in household applications. It is becoming more and more popular homes to have a big variety of household domestic applications. For example there is the iRobot that has a Roomba vacuuming robot as well and a whole line of robots designed to pick up dirt, clean, and mob the floors. The household robots are extreme time-saves, and make it easier for people to do there more productive tasks besides simply cleaning the house

Spherical Robot

A spherical robot consists of two rotary joints, one prismic joint, and an arm which moves in a spherical motion. It is used for handling machine tools, spot welding, die-casting, machine fettling, and gas and arc welding. Due to the superior abilities in other types of robots, spherical robots are rarely in use outside entertainment and leisure.

Articulated Robot

An articulated robot is a robot that uses rotary joints, or arms to complete tasks. Unlike the spherical robot, it can consist of 10 or more interacting joints instead of just two. Each arm consists of three joints. Like the spherical robot, it is used for die-casting, machine fettling and gas and arc wielding. It is also used for spray painting and assembly operations.

Parallel Robot

external image Adept_Quattro_prodprev.gif

A parallel robot consists of two bases connected by a number of “legs”. These legs consist of a prismic joint which are connected to the platforms through spherical joints. A parallel robot can perform manipulations for mechanical devices. They are most commonly used in airplane and automobile simulators.


Basic Robot Parts and Their Functions

The five most basic components that make up a robot are: a movable physical structure, a motor, a sensor system, a power supply, and a computer or “brain”. The movable physical structure often includes joints that allow parts of the robot to move, just like in a human body. The motor of the robot powers the actuator so that the joints of the robot can move. Only some robots have sensory systems that allow them to see, hear, smell, or taste. However, almost all robots use the same sensory system as a computer mouse to move. Robots use either a battery or a plug to supply power to the motor. The “brain” of the robot controls all of the functions of the robot, such as movement.

Software

Most robot program software consists of four main functions: declarations and variables, subroutines and functions, initialization, andexternal image free-sat-downloads%5Csat-software.jpg the main loop. The declarations and variables part of the program includes the files you are going to need, declare variables, and define constants. The subroutines and functions part consist of the codes of the software. The initializations job is to initialize variable for use and set up ports. The main loop runs the software off of you PC.

Movement

Movement is motion, a change in position. The attachments normally have many points of articulation. Points of articulation are normally referred to as joints, and the more joints an attachment has, the more freedom and range of motion it has.

Treads

Some robots use treads as a method of movement. There are some robots that have special treads called track mounted wheels. These special tracks can flex to meet the contours of the ground.

Wheels

Other robots use wheels as a method of movement. Some models of robots have individually powered wheels. These wheels make it easier for the operator to maneuver on rough terrain. This allows the man behind the wheel to cut power to individual wheels in order to redirect traction to the other wheels.

Robotic Arm

Robots used to manipulate objects normally have a robotic arm. Arms have several points of articulation, or joints. The arm might have the capabilities of a human arm. It has a shoulder, elbow and wrist with joints that increase the range of motion. Sometimes the robots have more joints that allow the robot to reach places that the operator can’t. On one end of the arm there is a manipulator; which is normally a gripping mechanism, like a two fingered claw.
















Ethical Dilemmas

There are many problems with the idea of a robotic code of conduct; first and foremost, one does not exist. One of the major problems is that robots do not have a have a form of religion, they do not have a constitution, and there is no robotic government. This means they have no written laws that are laid out and understood. For this reason, a robotic code of ethics has not been developed.

Robots to Humans

The many ethical dilemmas in robots are summed up in one question: if robots are equal to humans in artificial intelligence, where do we draw the line?
Where is the line to begin with?
Isaac Asimov
Isaac Asimov

To answer these questions, science fiction writers have been trying to formulate ethical codes for robots from as early as the 1940’s. Isaac Asimov, author of I, Robot (1942), created his Three Laws of Robotics:
1. A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
2. A robot must obey orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.
3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.
There are other laws created by other science fiction writers. There are two possible fourth laws and a fifth law.
4a) A robot must establish its identity as a robot in all cases.
This law was created by Lyuben Dilov to limit misunderstandings between robots and humans that resulted from a near exact human appearance.
4b) A robot must reproduce. As long as such reproduction does not interfere with the First, Second, or Third laws.
This law was created by Harry Harrison in an attempt to free robots by allowing them to be created by other robots; thus, allowing them to view other robots as parental figures.

5. A robot must know it is a robot.
This law was created by Nikola Kesarovski to combat the chance that a robot could accidentally injure a human by identifying itself as a human. This could cause it to kill a human by performing a basic human action with exceptional robotic strength. A possible result of a lack of this law would be if a robot were to hug someone and crush them in the action.
Such laws were only created by writers of science fiction novels. They were never intended to be an actual code of ethics for real robots.


Humans to Robots

An ethical problem has been discovered with the discovery that we can create Artificial Intelligence that can do human work. The problem with this is that if they do our work for us we are reinstating slavery with robots instead of African Americans. People used to consider that African Americans weren’t human, so are we going to take the same view on robots? They may not be truly human but if we were to program the correct software into them, you wouldn’t be able to tell the difference between the robot and the human. The largest question in this is that if we make creatures with our intelligence, will it continue to do what we want it too no matter what it may comprehend about it?
The object of Artificial Intelligence is that they would be able to comprehend what we do. If they were able to comprehend as we do, then why would they want to stay in servitude? It will turn out just like in the old slavery where slaves would run to try to get away from the slavery. The actual root of the word robot actually comes from the Czech word Robota which means “drudgery” or “forced labor.” The very word would come to fruition if we were to reinstate slavery. However the only place that Robotic slavery has been addressed is in Science fiction. The major question is, what can we morally use robots for?



Popular Culture and Robotics

In the world entertainment is an important part of a human beings daily life. People like to be entertained and robots are pretty entertaining. Many movies have been made in which robots are the main characters like Transformers. Robots first appeared in the theater production R.U.R. People were external image robocup19_wideweb__470x313,0.jpgcaptivated by the idea that something could be living without being born. Today robots are found everywhere like books, movies, television shows, and even competitions like the RoboCup and those are some pretty big things in our culture today. RoboCup is an international research and education initiative. It is an attempt to foster AI and intelligent robotics research by providing a standard problem where wide range of technologies can be integrated and examined. RoboCup chose to use the soccer game as its primary domain. Current activities for the RoboCup include technical conferences, RoboCup Challenge Programs, Education Programs, and Infrastructure Development. Our culture today is trying to incorporate robots with many of our daily life activities like vacuuming a room instead of us doing it they created a machine called the iRobot Scooba. It is a vacuum machine that cleans by itself. Our generation is the generation of technology. People are creating new technology everyday to make peoples life very easy. Robots are a big part of our lives now and who knows maybe in the future they will be our butlers, waiters, or even our own personal drivers. Today’s culture is very technological and everyday it grows more and more.


Future Uses of Robots

The future of robots increases every year and will keep increasing to new heights. The possible uses of robots would not be possible without the advancement of computers. This will last for years to come. Robots will range from simple pets to weapons in the military. Robots may even show up in homes doing house hold chores or just being a friend.
The pet like robots are companions that can fetch, walk, run, and bark. The best feature that can really convince the buyer to purchase this is that it can be turned on and off. In doing so, the pet makes it great to go on trips without spending money on a care taker or boarding the pet. Also you do not have to worry about shots and it getting sick. All you have to do is charge/ replace batteries. Another thing that is being worked on is the RoboCup. The RoboCups main goal is by 2050, to beat the world champion soccer team. This could lead it to being coaches, by helping players to learn more about the game and such. Human like robots are also in the near future being a friend to those who live alone. These robots will breathe, have real hair and eyes that will turn and blink. They will also react to the naturally with their surrounding environment by realizing touch and turning their head to you when you call them. The military will also have help from robotics. Robots could do the more dangerous jobs that soldiers normally have to cross their fingers and hope they make through. The robots could go through the minefields and deactivate bombs so if something bad happens we loose money instead of a human life. There can always be another robot built.
Robots will make great progress and help out the daily lives of all humans. Robots will make jobs safer and save people during war times. Robots are going to be great friends and will keep people company in their lonely times. Robots have evolved for many years and the growing does not stop here.





Citations


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